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New Mechanistic Insights, Novel Treatment Paradigms, and Clinical Progress in Cerebrovascular Diseases
The past decade has brought tremendous progress in diagnostic and therapeutic options for cerebrovascular diseases as exemplified by the advent of thrombectomy in ischemic stroke, benefitting a steeply increasing number of stroke patients and potentially paving the way for a renaissance of neuroprotectants. Progress in basic science has been equally impressive. Based on a deeper understanding of pathomechanisms underlying cerebrovascular diseases, new therapeutic targets have been identified and novel treatment strategies such as pre- and post-conditioning methods were developed. Moreover, translationally relevant aspects are increasingly recognized in basic science studies, which is believed to increase their predictive value and the relevance of obtained findings for clinical application.This review reports key results from some of the most remarkable and encouraging achievements in neurovascular research that have been reported at the 10th International Symposium on Neuroprotection and Neurorepair. Basic science topics discussed herein focus on aspects such as neuroinflammation, extracellular vesicles, and the role of sex and age on stroke recovery. Translational reports highlighted endovascular techniques and targeted delivery methods, neurorehabilitation, advanced functional testing approaches for experimental studies, pre-and post-conditioning approaches as well as novel imaging and treatment strategies. Beyond ischemic stroke, particular emphasis was given on activities in the fields of traumatic brain injury and cerebral hemorrhage in which promising preclinical and clinical results have been reported. Although the number of neutral outcomes in clinical trials is still remarkably high when targeting cerebrovascular diseases, we begin to evidence stepwise but continuous progress towards novel treatment options. Advances in preclinical and translational research as reported herein are believed to have formed a solid foundation for this progress.