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Designing Dual Transglutaminase 2/Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Effective at Halting Neuronal Death.
In recent years there has been a clear consensus that neurodegenerative conditions can be better treated through concurrent modulation of different targets. Herein we report that combined inhibition of transglutaminase 2 (TG2) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) synergistically protects against toxic stimuli mediated by glutamate. Based on these findings, we designed and synthesized a series of novel dual TG2-HDAC binding agents. Compound 3 [(E)-N-hydroxy-5-(3-(4-(3-oxo-3-(pyridin-3-yl)prop-1-en-1-yl)phenyl)thioureido)pentanamide] emerged as the most interesting of the series, being able to inhibit TG2 and HDACs both in vitro (TG2 IC50 =13.3±1.5 μm, HDAC1 IC50 =3.38±0.14 μm, HDAC6 IC50 =4.10±0.13 μm) and in cell-based assays. Furthermore, compound 3 does not exert any toxic effects in cortical neurons up to 50 μm and protects neurons against toxic insults induced by glutamate (5 mm) with an EC50 value of 3.7±0.5 μm.