Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most common causes of childhood disability worldwide. Several studies have shown that survivors of TBI suffer long-term functional impairments. Cognitive functions such as attention, memory and executive are the most prominently affected with debilitating consequences to emotional and behavioral development. Currently, the mechanisms underlying this impairment have not been characterized, limiting prognosis and development of targeted therapies. Methods: This presentation will discuss what is known about the mechanisms underlying these cognitive deficits. The latest evidence based cognitive rehab interventions will also be presented. Results: Future research must focus on cognitive rehab approaches that utilize knowledge of pathophysiology to alleviate the devastating long-term consequences after TBI. Conclusions: TBI is expected to soon be the leading cause of disability and death worldwide by the World health organization. The long-term sequelae of cognitive impairments are well known but currently very little is known about the underlying mechanisms and limited therapeutic interventions exist.