The nervous system demands an adequate oxygen and metabolite exchange, making pericytes (PCs), the only vasoactive cells on the capillaries, essential to neural function. Loss of PCs is a hallmark of multiple diseases, including diabetes, Alzheimer's, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson's. Platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs) have been shown to be critical to PC function and survival. However, how PDGFR-mediated PC activity affects vascular homeostasis is not fully understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that imatinib, a chemotherapeutic agent and a potent PDGFR inhibitor, alters PC distribution and thus induces vascular atrophy. We performed a morphometric analysis of the vascular elements in sham control and imatinib-treated NG2-DsRed mice. Vascular morphology and the integrity of the blood-retina barrier (BRB) were evaluated using blood albumin labeling. We found that imatinib decreased the number of PCs and blood vessel (BV) coverage in all retinal vascular layers; this was accompanied by a shrinkage of BV diameters. Surprisingly, the total length of capillaries was not altered, suggesting a preferential effect of imatinib on PCs. Furthermore, blood-retina barrier disruption was not evident. In conclusion, our data suggest that imatinib could help in treating neurovascular diseases and serve as a model for PC loss, without BRB disruption.