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Retinal and Callosal Activity-Dependent Chandelier Cell Elimination Shapes Binocularity in Primary Visual Cortex
In mammals with binocular vision, integration of the left and right visual scene relies on information in the center visual field, which are relayed from each retina in parallel and merge in the primary visual cortex (V1) through the convergence of ipsi- and contralateral geniculocortical inputs as well as transcallosal projections between two visual cortices. The developmental assembly of this binocular circuit, especially the transcallosal pathway, remains incompletely understood. Using genetic methods in mice, we found that several days before eye-opening, retinal and callosal activities drive massive apoptosis of GABAergic chandelier cells (ChCs) in the binocular region of V1. Blockade of ChC elimination resulted in a contralateral eye-dominated V1 and deficient binocular vision. As pre-vision retinal activities convey the left-right organization of the visual field, their regulation of ChC density through the transcallosal pathway may prime a nascent binocular territory for subsequent experience-driven tuning during the post-vision critical period.