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CNS and peripheral immunity in cerebral ischemia: partition and interaction
Stroke elicits excessive immune activation in the injured brain tissue. This well-recognized neural inflammation in the brain is not just an intrinsic organ response but also a result of additional intricate interactions between infiltrating peripheral immune cells and the resident immune cells in the affected areas. Given that there is a finite number of immune cells in the organism at the time of stroke, the partitioned immune systems of the CNS and periphery must appropriately distribute the limited pool of immune cells between the two domains, mounting a necessary post-stroke inflammatory response by supplying a sufficient number of immune cells into the brain while maintaining peripheral immunity. Stroke pathophysiology has mainly been neurocentric in focus, but understanding the distinct roles of the CNS and peripheral immunity in their concerted action against ischemic insults is crucial. This review will discuss stroke-induced influences of the peripheral immune system on CNS injury/repair and of neural inflammation on peripheral immunity, and how comorbidity influences each.