MIT’s spirit of interdisciplinary exploration has fueled many scientific breakthroughs and technological advances. A few examples: the first chemical synthesis of penicillin and vitamin A. The development of radar and creation of inertial guidance systems. The invention of magnetic core memory, which enabled the development of digital computers. Major contributions to the Human Genome Project. The discovery of quarks. The invention of the electronic spreadsheet and of encryption systems that enable e-commerce. The creation of GPS. Pioneering 3D printing. The concept of the expanding universe.